Current Fifteenth periodic plan of Nepal | 15th periodic plan of Nepal (2076 BS – 2081 BS)
Systematic endeavors for financial improvement were begun in Nepal simply after 2007 BS. During the Rana system of the rule of Prime Minister Juddha Shamsher, 20-year Plan was reported. In 1949, the National Planning Committee was comprised so as to define the 15-year Plan. However, both of these plans were not actualized. In 1952, separate Planning and Development Ministry was established. Therefore, in the genuine sense, Economic Planning in Nepal had begun in Nepal with the initiation of the First Plan in 2013 BS. So, 2013 BS is viewed as a brilliant year in the Planned development exertion of Nepal. Nepal has so far finished fourteen periodic plans and has propelled the Fifteenth Five Year Plan. The objectives, priorities, and policies of the current 15th periodic plan of Nepal are as follows:
Long Term Vision of 15th plan :
Promote Good Governance, Development, and Prosperity of the country. The main motto of the current 15th 5-year plan is “Prosperous Nepal, Happy Nepali” (” समृद्ध नेपाल, सुखी नेपाली”). To transform Nepal as a nation of happy, healthy, educated, dignified and high quality living citizens with equal opportunity, including prosperous, independent and socialist-oriented economies.
To increase the economic growth rate to 10.5% and eradicate absolute poverty (reduce to 0%) by 2100 B.S. The major highlights and targets of 15th periodic plan of Nepal are presented as follows:
Major Highlights and Targets of 15th Periodic plan of Nepal
|S.N||Indicators||Current Situation||Targets (2080/81 BS)|
|1||Economic growth rate||6.8%||10.3%|
|2||GNP Per Capita||1047 US$||1595 US$|
|3||Population below the poverty line||18.7%||11%|
|5||Life expectancy at Birth||69.7 Years||72 Years|
|7||Roadways||6979 KM||15,000 KM|
|8||Railways||42 KM||200 KM|
|9||Family with access to electricity||90.7%||99%|
|10||People with access to drinking water||88%||99%|
|12||Hydroelectricity generation||1020 MW||5000 MW|
National Objectives of 15th periodic plan of Nepal:
a. To provide easily accessible, qualitative and modern infrastructure, productive employment generation, high sustainable inclusive economic growth through poverty alleviation.
b. To provide qualitative health and a healthy environment, social justice, accountable social service and quality of life.
c. To protect the national benefit of democracy, sovereignty and ensure socio-economic transformation for a strong economic foundation.
Long Term National Objectives:
1. Accessible modern infrastructure and intensive connectivity.
2. Development and full utilization of human capital potentials.
3. High and sustainable production and productivity.
4. High and equitable national income.
5. Well-being and decent life.
6. Safe, civilized and just society.
7. Healthy and balanced environment.
8. Good governance, Comprehensive democracy, National unity, security, and dignity.
Strategies of 15th periodic plan of Nepal:
a. Facilitate accelerated, sustainable and employment-oriented economic growth.
b. Facilitating accessible and quality medical care and education.
c. Internal and non-industrial immobility and development of residence.
d. Increasing production and productivity.
e. Provide comprehensive, effective social security and safety.
f. Alleviating poverty and ensuring equality and justice-based society.
g. Conservation of natural resources and development of sustainability.
h. Strengthening of public service, provincial balancing, and integration of central units.
i. Involvement of all tiers of government to achieve economic growth.
Priority Areas of 15th periodic plan of Nepal:
The following are the priority areas of this Plan:
(a) Development of hydroelectricity and different energies.
(b) Increase the profitability, expansion, and commercialization of the farming segment.
(c) Development of the tourism, industry and business segments.
(d) Development of fundamental instruction and wellbeing, drinking water and sanitation sectors.
(e) Promotion of good administration.
(f) Development of roadways and other physical foundations.
(g) Protection of natural resources and the environment.
Unofficial Translation of fifteenth periodic plan of Nepal 2076-77 to 2080-81 BS
1. Background of the 15th periodic plan:
The constitution of Nepal envisages creating a prosperous, independent and socialist-oriented economy. The Fifteenth Plan has a vision of rapid and balanced economic development, prosperity, good governance and happiness for the citizens. This will be the first plan to achieve the target in the federal structure through three levels of efficient intergovernmental finance management and cooperation with the private, cooperative and community sectors.
This scheme will achieve the prosperity and happiness of the present generation and build the foundation of a socialist-oriented economy. In order to increase income, build quality human capital and minimize economic risks, upgrade from developing countries to developing countries by 2079; By 2087, the basis of the Fifth Plan has been formulated to reach high-middle-income countries with the idea of achieving sustainable development goals.
During this planning period, all the resources available in the country will be mobilized for the purpose of creating productive employment, equitable distribution and achieving economic growth including social protection and security. For this, the investment will be focused on expanding economic activities and bringing mobility. Private, cooperative and community sectors will be operated as complementary to each other. Investment from these sectors will be oriented towards the structural change of the economy by making economy economical, productive and self-reliant through investment, productivity enhancement, and entrepreneurship promotion.
In accordance with the federal structure, plans will be implemented to achieve the goals of economic, social, environmental and good governance on the basis of principles of cooperation, co-existence, and coordination between union, state and local level. Emphasis is placed on the plan to increase the size of the national economy by centralizing investment in international and regional levels, focusing on investment in the area of converters through the mobilization of cooperative sectors of the economy.
This fifteenth plan of Nepal will focus on building a foundation for the realization of economic prosperity and civic happiness by maintaining harmony in the functioning of the three levels of government through the mobilization of internal and external resources and resources and intergovernmental finance.
Challenges and opportunities of the fifteenth periodic plan:
The task of equitable economic prosperity and qualitative improvement in the lives of the citizens is challenging. For this, it is necessary to achieve rapid economic growth by building modern infrastructure and quality human capital. The elimination of absolute and multidimensional poverty and the need to reduce income inequality drastically require huge resources and resources.
Likewise, the task of systematic urbanization, integrated and secure settlement development, rural infrastructure development, increase in consumption of clean energy and development of information technology are equally important. Equally challenging is the commercialization of agriculture and forest products, the expansion of the industry sector and the enhancement of the quality of the service sector.
The development of productive employment opportunities through the development of healthy and educated citizens and skilled human resources, the use of demographic benefits and the efficient and effective implementation of financial federalism while maintaining macroeconomic stability are challenging.
The implementation of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitution will require plenty of resources and resources to achieve its progress and sustainable development goals. Creating an environment of sophisticated and dignified living for the common people and providing social security and protection is difficult to build a fair society. At the same time, the task of achieving sustainability and climate adaptability while minimizing disaster risk is equally challenging. The cost estimation, distribution, and manpower and institutional arrangements of the resources to fulfill the task responsibilities of the union, state and local level are also challenging.
Due to the active government and institutional stability at the union, state and local levels, the country is moving forward towards economic prosperity including social justice and the competitive spirit of sustainable development, prosperity and good governance at the state and local level is in itself an opportunity. Also, the potential for utilizing the available demographic benefits in the development of the country through human capital creation is high.
Creating a comfortable environment for investment focus by identifying the conductive sectors of the economy’s auxiliary sectors and converting areas, improving the public service flow through capital transfers at the state and local level, improving public service flows, employment, income generation and poverty alleviation and development of the local economy. The rise in national production Civic sense of the natural, geographical, biological, environmental, and social and cultural diversity is an opportunity for multi-use.
There is potential for a huge contribution to the creation of national capital through investment in the private sector, professionalism and competitiveness enhancement and mobilization of productive sectors of the community and cooperative sectors.
During the planning period, investment in the connector sectors of the economy and transformational programs/projects will help in building a more equitable society through the increase in the size of the economy and the equitable distribution of the returns it receives. There is a possibility of increasing public investment by expanding the scope of finance towards internal sources.
Inter-government partnerships and public-private partnerships have shown that it can mobilize the necessary investment for capital formation. Also, the commitment from the bilateral and bilateral development partners provides the assurance of resources. The expansion of the service sector by the development of economic, social and physical infrastructure will help increase the productivity and productivity of the economy.
This will help to achieve prosperity by maintaining macroeconomic stability through productive employment creation, export promotion, and import management.
The Fifteenth Plan of Nepal will be the basis for achieving long-term thinking of “Prosperous Nepal, Happy Nepali“. In accordance with this, the national goal of the scheme is to build a foundation for upgrading high-income countries by transforming it into a socialist-oriented public welfare state with a rich economy, social justice, and sophisticated living.
1. Promoting rapid, sustainable and economical employment:
Rapid, sustainable and employment-based economic growth will be achieved through basic and macro-infrastructure construction, production and utilization of clean credit, high cost and commercial agriculture, productive industry and tourism development and expansion of trade.
In addition to enhancing the effectiveness of the public sector, the country will be developed as an international/regional economic (tourism, commercial, educational and financial) center, with wider mobilization and strengthening of the private, cooperative and community sectors, development of regional and local economies and improvement of project governance. In addition, a comprehensive and subject-area strategy will be adopted for the maximum utilization of capital, labor, and natural resources.
2. Ensure accessible and quality healthcare and education:
At the local level, equitable access of citizens to health services will be established by developing health infrastructure including basic health services. The use of the latest technology and the availability of manpower and efficiency will be ensured to ensure the quality of health services in medicine and treatment systems, physicians and service effects.
A policy of minimization and risk management will be adopted to reduce the cost of healthcare delivery. For this, the health system will be improved by expanding health insurance. A healthy lifestyle will be promoted while making citizens responsible for health.
In addition to ensuring free and compulsory basic education and free secondary education, accessible access to quality education, technology-friendly, employment-oriented, and life-long education will be developed and expanded. Specialized and higher education will be expanded and strengthened at the local level for technical education and at the state level. Strengthening educational and educational institutions, building quality infrastructure, good governance and competitive ability will be enhanced.
The government’s investment and role in the overall development of education and the health sector will be leadership. In addition, the role of the private, cooperative and community sectors will be developed as complementary. Nepal will be developed as a regional center for providing quality healthcare and technical and specialized higher education.
3. Developing Internal and Inland Interdependence and Sustainable Cities / Settlements:
The investment will be concentrated in this area, which is one of the major contributors to economic growth. Inter-dependency development, production cost reduction and competitive capacity will be enhanced based on an integrated transport system for the construction of national, regional and local road networks, tunnelways, highways, railways, waterways, and airports. It will also help increase domestic and international trade and quality tourism.
Large infrastructure, including extensive and under construction, will be completed, including reconstruction. The capacity and efficiency of the construction business will be increased by increasing investment in modern technology and equipment for the development of this sector.
Infrastructure will be developed to enhance the production, distribution, and consumption of debt. For this, internal and inland power transmission lines will be constructed while constructing multiple, reservoir and exportable projects. In addition, the use of electrical equipment and vehicles will be enhanced while emphasizing renewable loans including solar, wind, biogas. The use of modern electrical equipment will be encouraged to increase application efficiency and per capita electricity consumption.
In order to promote an economy based on information technology, modern infrastructure related to information highways and information technology will be built and the flow of electronic services will be enhanced. Government services will be fully integrated into the electricity system within the next five years.
Modern, safe and sustainable cities and integrated settlements will be developed to manage the growing settlements and urbanization. A systematic settlement with the dense city, urban corridor, specialized and mountainous cities with modern infrastructure and the pollution-free urban environment will be developed.
Necessary infrastructure will be constructed for the management and processing of drinking water and waste at the regional and local levels while building large projects in the drinking water sector. Integrated settlement development, civic housing planning and interdependence between rural and urban areas will be enhanced. A new city will be built to expand local economic activities and create employment opportunities.
4. Productivity and productivity enhancement:
Rapid and intensive expansion of irrigation facilities, effective implementation of land use policy, integration of land and agitation, adoption of advanced seed-seeding, fertilizer and modern technology, mechanization, modernization, commercialization of agriculture with emphasis on low cost/volume high cost and organic agricultural production and processing.
And industrialization will be done. For this, agricultural research and technology development, subsidized agricultural loans, agricultural insurance, agricultural dissemination services, ensuring the availability of fertilizers and seeds, promotion of agriculture, investment and market management will be done at the local and regional levels.
Along with major food crops, strategic interventions will be undertaken to ensure self-reliance in fisheries and livestock production. The minimum support price of major agricultural products before the production of the crop will be effectively implemented.
Establishment of industrial zones, special economic zones, economic corridors and industrial villages, an operation to the full potential of existing industries, promotion of small and medium enterprises and production will be enhanced by incentives and regulation based on production.
The development, rehabilitation and expansion of agriculture and forestry, construction, pharmaceuticals, handicrafts, ready-made garments, and other productive industries with the comparative advantage will be maintained and affiliation with regional and global value chain will be maintained.
Competitive capacity and productivity will be increased through the easy and accessible supply of energy, cost of transportation and storage, reduction, use of clean, sophisticated and modern technology, study research, entrepreneurship development, social security scheme, good labor, and environmental balance.
The construction and up-gradation of airports and other major tourist infrastructure will be developed, tourism destinations will be developed, tourism destinations will be developed and the tourism sector will be promoted. Strategic interventions will be undertaken to modernize, develop and expand the service sectors including transport, trade, financial services and so on.
The effectiveness of financial services will be enhanced through financial access, inclusion and literacy. In addition, the productivity of the economy will be increased by reducing transportation and transportation costs and time, improving the regulatory system and cutting business costs.
5. Provide complete, sustainable and productive social security and protection:
All citizens will be provided with the opportunity provided by the Constitution, the services provided by the state, full security and respect and social protection. For the inclusive economic growth, elimination of absolute poverty, and equitable distribution of income, equitable access, distribution and utilization of the means of production, employment and opportunities will be ensured.
A program of comprehensive and integrated social security and protection will be implemented based on the participation and contribution of the employers, workers, and citizens of the organized and unorganized sector. The state will implement special protection programs for marginalized and at-risk communities and citizens. Social Security-related funds will be mobilized to increase national income and maintain macroeconomic stability.
6. To build a just society with poverty alleviation and economic social equality:
Programs on building a safe, decent and equitable society will be implemented by ending gender equality and ending all forms of violence, discrimination, exclusion, and perversion. Emphasis will be given to equal access and distribution on all types of opportunities including education, health, employment, representation. Emphasis will be given on the establishment of healthy and vibrant social life through the protection and promotion of socio-cultural diversity, social and community activities and social capital mobilization.
Interdependence and cooperation between the Union, the province and the local level will enhance independence, national unity, and collective spirit. Moral and civic education and socio-cultural awareness will be launched as a campaign. The justice system will be developed in a simpler, less costly and timely manner so that justice can be achieved.
7. Conservation of Natural Resources and Development of Operations and Sustainability:
The contribution of land, forest, water resources, and mineral resources to agriculture, industry, and services will be increased and protected. Commercial and agricultural forest and non-timber forest products will be increased towards the forest area.
Strategic interventions will be made so that the scientific, systematic and balanced use of forest produce and re-plantation will be self-reliant in wood production. The feasibility study of the mining and mining sectors will be linked to the value chain. Integrated projects will be implemented in a cost-effective manner for the multilateral utilization of abundant water resources. In addition, the use of natural resources will emphasize the conservation of biodiversity and environmental balance.
A strategy will be adopted to adapt to climate change and reduce the risk of disaster. In order to prepare for disaster management, rescue, relief, and rehabilitation, basic proof will be given to the institutional and structural reforms and development processes of the union, state and local levels.
8. Strengthening public service, promoting regional balance and national unity:
On the basis of cooperation, co-existence and coordination in the federal governance system, public services provided by the federal, state and local level will be made agile, transparent and accountable. The services and facilities directly involved with the citizenry will be provided from the local level.
For balanced regional development, production, infrastructure construction, and quality services will be distributed at the state level. Strategic development, product, service assurance, and research and development will remain the priority of the Association. Electricity system adoption and inter-dependency will be developed to modernize the service flow of the three levels of government.
The multidimensional aspects of good governance will be improved for development and prosperity while strengthening national unity, security, and dignity. The federal governance system will be strengthened by increasing access to financial services, inclusion, and literacy.
Internalization of Sustainable Development Goals:
The macro-national goals, destinations, indicators and expected achievements of the Fifth Plan have been formulated to align with the goals of sustainable development while formulating regional policies, strategies, and strategies. The quantitative goals and strategies outlined above cover the three dimensions of the Sustainable Development Goals.
In addition, macroeconomic policy, a target of economic growth rate, the estimate of total investment, investment of public, private and cooperative sectors, the regional contribution to the gross domestic product, determination of needs and sustainable development target needs, cost estimation and financial strategy have also been laid. Special emphasis will be given on the internalization and localization of sustainable development goals during the planning period.
Implementation of the goals and strategies of the scheme related to economic growth, employment, uplifting infrastructure, industrialization, the sustainability of cities and settlements, consumption and production required for sustainable development will help achieve the goals of sustainable development. Likewise, implementation of the goals and strategies formulated in areas like gender equality, good governance, and social security will help achieve the goals of Sustainable Development.
In this plan, poverty reduction, starvation, drinking water systems and strategies for all have addressed the goals of Sustainable Development. Similarly, strategies related to the health and education sectors have been formulated to help achieve Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 4. The scheme also sets out strategies for natural resource management and the development of sustainability.
Implementation of these strategies will help achieve Sustainable Development Goals. In addition, this plan emphasizes the partnership with the public, private, cooperative, community sector as well as internal and external stakeholders to achieve the development goals as envisaged by the Sustainable Development Goal.
Regional role in the development:
a. Public Sector:
The public sector will play a leading role in achieving the development goals, including the national thinking of ‘Prosperous Nepal, Happy Nepali’. The sector will play an important role in building a socialist-oriented economy while achieving rapid, sustainable and employment-oriented economic growth. This sector will motivate private, cooperative and community and non-government sector investment and participation in the overall development effort.
The public sector will formulate, implement, monitor and regulate the policies, plans, strategies, and criteria needed to build a socialist-oriented economy. The institutional capacity of regulatory bodies will be enhanced. The state will play an important role in building investment environment, infrastructure development and production and productivity enhancement to maintain high, sustainable and inclusive economic growth and sustainability. The policy will be adopted to provide financial incentives while maintaining financial stability.
The public sector will play a leading role in building social justice, regional balance, decent and equitable society. Emphasis will be given on economic empowerment while equitable distribution and redistribution of economic achievement. The federal governance system will be strengthened by maintaining good governance, peace, and order, social security, and protection, protection of human rights and a guarantee of productive employment. The public sector will play an important role in making citizens feel sophisticated and dignified.
The constitution of Nepal has established the relationship between union, state and local level based on the principles of cooperation, co-existence, and coordination. The union will cooperate, coordinate and partner with the state and local level to implement national thinking, goals, objectives, and priorities. While formulating this plan, the responsibilities of the constitutional provisions and specific task responsibilities in the schedule, the laws related to the implementation of the constitution, the government’s policies and priorities and international commitments have also been taken into account.
The plans, policies, and programs of the state and local level will be formulated and implemented so as to harmonize and complement the thinking, goals, objectives, and strategies of the scheme. National goals of economic prosperity and citizen happiness will be achieved through efficient mobilization of the means of production available with the cooperation and cooperation of the state and local level.
The Union will implement central planning, policymaking, regulation, coordination, criterion-making and large and large-scale projects and programs. In addition, the Association will emphasize strategic development, production, service assurance and research and development In order to increase the productivity and productivity of agriculture, industry, construction and service sectors and increase the standard of living of the people, it will work according to the concept of inclusive and balanced development.
For this purpose, according to the constitution of Nepal and the Intergovernmental Finance Management Act, the financial transfer will be made including equilibrium, conditional, supplementary and special grants and revenue sharing. The association will also carry out the necessary capacity development and facilitation to achieve the objective of the plan’s overall and subject-area thinking.
For this, the model will formulate plans, policies, laws, and procedures. In addition, the National Planning Commission will transfer the necessary knowledge and skills related to development plans, including long-term thinking, planning, annual budget, and medium-term spending structure monitoring and evaluation at the state and local levels. The union will provide the necessary support to build a strong foundation for the state and local economy.
The province will act as a coordinator, cooperative and cooperative in achieving the thinking, goals, objectives, and strategies of the development of the Government of Nepal, implementing policies and programs and building development. According to the concept of participatory development, it will formulate, implement and monitor the state-level plans, policies, programs, to carry forward the development process.
In addition, the living standard of the people will be improved by selecting and implementing programs and projects of regional importance and priority by creating a suitable investment environment at the state level. Emphasis will be given on creating an environment of cooperation, coordination, and competition for development and prosperity among the provinces.
The state-level will play a key role in enhancing the quality and effectiveness of good governance, peacekeeping, employment growth, and public service delivery. Cooperation, coordination, and partnership will be made with the private, non-government, cooperative and community sectors for the economic development of the state level. By developing manpower and institutional capacity, the state level will be made inclusive, professional, competitive, service-oriented and self-sufficient.
Sustainable management of state-level resources will be encouraged and maximum utilization will be encouraged. Capacity enhancement works will be carried out at the state level by formulating plans, implementing and monitoring and evaluating them. In addition, arrangements will be made for financial transfer as per material basis and criteria.
The local level will form the basis of prosperity through the development and expansion of the local economy by coordinating, cooperating and cooperating to achieve the thinking, goals, and objectives of the development of the Union and the State Government. For this, the mutual partnership will be maintained with inclusive representation, enhancement of resources and easy access to the service provider body.
Local-level will play a key role in the delivery of basic services to the citizens. This level will formulate and implement policies, plans, and programs in accordance with the federal and state-level plans and policies. The implementation of projects and programs will improve the living standard of the citizens by creating an appropriate environment for mobilization and investment of resources and resources as per the need.
The investment will be increased in rural development and local infrastructure construction with integrated thinking at the local level. In addition, a financial incentive policy will be adopted for the operation of social awareness campaigns, development and promotion of good governance jointly.
This level will play a key role in guaranteeing public service facilities, including education, health, electricity, drinking water, and sanitation, establishing them as the base centers for effective service flow and development management. For this, the local level will partner and cooperate with the private, non-government and community sectors.
There will be a local level cooperative role in peacekeeping, employment generation, and human resource development. Local governance will be maintained by making the services flowing from the local level inclusive, professional, competitive, service-oriented and self-reliant.
e. Private sector:
The private sector will play an important role in the overall development process. The private sector will play its role as specified by the policies and laws adopted by the constitution of Nepal. The private sector will have a role to play in supporting and cooperating in the socio-economic development of the country by developing an investment-friendly environment to achieve the goals and objectives as per the government’s development thinking, policies and plans.
The private sector will enhance competitiveness and carry out developmental construction work with a fair distribution of risk according to the concept of public-private partnership. The goal of sustainable development will be achieved by providing necessary incentives to increase private sector investment in agriculture, industry, construction and service sectors.
The sector will assist in the production of quality goods and services, easy and accessible supply management, quality infrastructure construction, import management, export promotion and create productive and dignified employment. It will enhance the reputation of the private sector by maintaining institutional good governance, sound industrial relations, child labor prevention, participation in social security and protection, and carrying out institutional social responsibility.
The financial sector will help maintain stability and good governance. By enhancing domestic and foreign investment, bilateral and multilateral commitments and agreements will help meet the opportunities and challenges of opportunity.
f. Co-operative sector:
The cooperative sector will play a supportive role in the overall development process by following the principles and legal arrangements adopted by the constitution of Nepal as specified in the cooperative values and adherence to principles and developing a culture of mutuality and independence. This sector will have a role to play in cooperating and cooperating in the socio-economic development of the country in order to achieve the goals and objectives as per the development thinking, policies and plans.
This sector will maintain local governance, labor, skills, and capital in a cooperative manner and will help to increase employment and income and poverty alleviation by mobilizing local resources. In addition, the region will assist in achieving socio-economic and cultural transformation and inclusive economic growth of the members by producing, processing and marketing of goods and services of human need.
g. Non-governmental organizations, civil society, and community sectors:
Non-governmental organizations, civil society, and community sectors will play a supportive role in the overall development effort. This sector will assist in poverty alleviation, capacity building, citizen awareness, and duty awareness and empowerment by conducting programs in the area of development goals and priorities of the government.
It will also assist in the development, production growth and service delivery of remote and backward areas. The sector will play its role by maintaining institutional governance while maintaining transparency, accountability, and frugality.
Health and Nutrition in the current 15th periodic plan of Nepal (2076 BS – 2080/81 BS)
Here are the major strategies, vision, goals, objectives, and course of actions of the 15th periodic plan of Nepal that can be useful to students of Class 10, XI, XII and higher relating to EPH (Environment, Population, and Health). This article can be taken as a reference to guide their study regarding the Health and nutrition plan of Nepal. The source of this article is the National Planning Commission, 15th Periodic Plan of Nepal, (Draft).
Health and Nutrition in 15th periodic plan of Nepal:
Development of healthy, productive, responsible and happy citizens.
Development and expansion of effective health systems at all levels and provide quality health service assurance and access to all the citizens.
Development and Expansion of balanced and equitable health services at national, provincial and local levels.
Conversion of profit-oriented health sectors to service-oriented sectors and ensure quality and efficient health service.
- Increase the access of all citizens to preventive, promotive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative health care.
Development and expansion of Ayurvedic, naturopathy and other health systems.
- Improve the health conditions of the mother, infants, children, adolescents, and management of the family.
- Development of skilled manpower accountable to manage issues like population distribution, difficult geographical location and develop need-based hospitals and health institutions.
- Increase national investment in the health sector and promote sustainable health finance.
- Implementation of a multidimensional nutrition plan effectively.
- Production of medicines, health equipment, distribution of medicines, inventory management, and import of quality medical accessories.
The course of actions:
- Management of pharmaceutical waste through integration with the local and provincial governments.
- Commercial farming of medicinal herbs and production of modern medical equipment.
- Promotion of the health service at all levels and equitable health insurance to all the citizens.
- Implementation of ‘One school, one health personnel’ policy through collaboration with educational sectors.
- Promotion of personal hygiene, sanitation and quality food for the alleviation of malnutrition.
- Expansion of mental health services at all levels.
- Control of communicable as well as non-communicable, infectious diseases and promotion of health services effectively through strategic planning.
Here is the unofficial translation of health and nutrition plans in the fifteenth periodic plan of Nepal.
1. Background of Health and Nutrition in Nepal:
Nepal’s constitution provides every citizen with the fundamental right to receive basic health care free of charge from the state. In view of the importance of healthy and productive citizens in the development of the country, it is the responsibility of the state to ensure equitable access to quality and all-round health services through increased investment in the region. In this context, according to the concept of a public welfare state, the health sector needs to be gradually transformed from a profitable to a serviceable sector. According to the list of single and common rights of the constitution, the responsibility of health services to the union, state and local level has been placed within the union’s authority, including health policies, standards, quality, monitoring, traditional treatment services and transmission of disease control. Coordination and cooperation of the Ministry are indispensable for its effective implementation.
There is a national agenda for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, based on the international commitments made in time, the existing policies of the Government of Nepal and the major problems, challenges and opportunities in the health and nutrition sectors. Increasing investment in modern medicine, ayurvedic, natural, homeopathic medicine, health governance, and research is needed to make the citizens healthy. In this plan, the leading role of the state and the private and cooperative sectors will have a fulfilling role in rehabilitating the health service from the people to the doorsteps.
2. Major problems:
Failure to maintain access and uniformity of quality healthcare services as expected by the people, service and manpower services and manpower cannot be adequately developed, non-receipt of investment in healthcare services, lack of modern equipment and specialist doctors as needed in government health institutions; Non-communicable diseases, malnutrition, accidents and Padajanya existing health problems remain. Non-communicable diseases, change in diet and lifestyle burden and mental health problems are a major problem to grow. Lack of coordination between manpower production and utilization related to healthcare, the emergence of human health problems due to climate change, increased food insecurity and natural calamities, increasing the biological resistance to antibiotics due to lack of proper use of antibiotics, slowing down the maternal mortality rate. About one-third of children under 6 years of age and reproductive-age of women have low marks of nutrition and health care.
3. Challenges and opportunities:
a. Establish equitable access to citizens in all areas of health, provide free quality basic health services to all locals, make healthcare available to the most disadvantaged and at-risk citizens at high priority, reduce personal spending on health care, determine financial resources and availability.
b. Consistent management of health organizations, health insurance
c. Balanced management of skilled manpower, healthy drug production being independent, solving health problems related to lifestyle.
d. Increasing urbanization, effective management and regulation of pharmaceuticals making health information systems more systematic, integrated and technology-friendly, properly addressing the demands of all levels of health information, evaluating, reviewing.
e. Policymaking and Decision Making.
The main challenges include increasing the use of statistics in action, developing a method of recording the cause of death and conducting regular research, ensuring the quality of health care and regulating good governance in the overall health and nutrition sector.
Distribute the list of health care rights between the union, state and local level of the constitution-provided state, implementation of health insurance program through policies and laws, increasing the investment in health by utilizing their own resources at the state and local level, launching new information technology, medicines, and equipment are also major changes.
4. Vision, goals, objectives, strategies, and Action Plans:
Healthy, productive, responsible and happy citizens.
4. 2 Goal:
By developing and expanding a robust health system at all levels, access to quality healthcare at the people’s level will be ensured.
1. Balanced development and expansion of all types of health services at the union, state and local levels.
2. To transform the non-profit health sector into a service sector, while increasing the government’s accountability and effective regulation for accessible and quality healthcare.
3. To promote healthy living by making service providers and servicemen more accountable by increasing citizen access and consumption of health services, including regional coordination and partnerships.
4.4 Strategies and action plans:
Strategy number 1. To ensure that all citizens have access to basic and specialized and quality healthcare, including preventive, Palliative, promotional, therapeutic, restorative and cosmetic.
Courses of Actions:
a. A package and protocol will be formulated and implemented for the citizen’s access to free basic healthcare.
b. To extend the access of health services to the rural people by expanding their access to quality healthcare services, telemedicine will be developed and expanded;
c. In partnership with private and non-governmental organizations, a rehabilitation center will be established and community-based restorative and supportive services will be developed and expanded in partnership with the private and non-governmental organizations.
d. Timely vaccination services will be provided based on disease burden and cost-effectiveness. The vaccine fund will be strengthened to make vaccine services sustainable.
e. In order to maintain a good and harmonious relationship between physician/ health worker and patient through the code of conduct, promotional programs will be implemented to ensure good behavior.
f. In order to improve the quality of health care provided by health institutions of all levels, the necessary budget will be ensured by effectively implementing Nepal Health Infrastructure Development Standards and minimum service standards.
Strategy number 2. Planned development and extension of Ayurveda, Naturopathy and other medical methods.
Courses of Actions:
a. The structure will be constructed for the identification, collection, preservation, and promotion of locally available medicinal herbs, minerals, and zinc.
b. Listing and organizing the prevailing natural medicine, alternative, and other medical methods and services on certain criteria, establishing national Ayurveda, yoga, meditation, pranayama, psychotherapy, panchakarma, and natural medicine service center along with specialized services of Ayurveda, Panchakarma, Yoga, and Naturopathy will be promoted.
Strategy number 3. To further improve and expand the overall development and family management services of mothers, children, and adolescents by addressing the health needs of citizens of all age groups according to the concept of the way of life.
Courses of Actions:
a. In line with the concept of the life cycle, the comprehensive development of mothers, children, adolescents, and family management services will be further improved and expanded.
b. To address the health needs of citizens of all age groups, health services will be made senior citizens, gender and disability friendly according to the concept of the way of life.
c. Arrangements will be made for regular health tests to quickly identify the health risks of different age groups.
d. Arrangements will be made for the free trial of diseases such as breast cancer and cervical cancer, which are increasing in women.
e. Special programs including fact-based midwife education and services will be formulated and implemented to reduce maternal mortality.
Strategy number 4. To develop and expand the skilled manpower that can bear hospital and health institutions and skill-specific social responsibility at the union, state and local levels depending on the distribution, geographical location, and needs of the population.
Courses of Actions:
a. To ensure that at least one basic health care center at every local level, basic emergency surgery and primary trauma care at every local level, the primary hospital, second-level hospital under the province, regional hospital and union under the highly specialized hospital and under the union. At least one specialized hospital in each province and so on.
b. The concept of “one physician/health worker-one educational institution” belonging to a single health institution will be gradually applied to all government health institutions, with additional facilities in government hospitals to effectively implement this concept and expand access to services.
c. A master plan will be formulated and implemented to determine the number, type, location and required health manpower of the health institution by developing modern methods and certain criteria.
d. Scholarships will be provided in various health disciplines based on the needs of the country and the availability of financial resources.
Strategy number 5. To develop a sustainable health financial system by increasing national investment in health.
Courses of Actions:
a. An integrated national health financing strategy will be formulated and implemented, covering the issue of mobilizing equitable access to health services, minimizing personal spending in health services and mobilizing financial resources in health.
b. Quality basic health services will be made available at all local levels through free and specialist health services as well as other health services through equitable health insurance.
Strategy number 6. To manage and regulate cooperation and partnerships between government, private and non-government sectors while ensuring the leadership role of the government in healthcare.
Courses of Actions:
a. With the necessary coordination with the education sector, “one school-one health worker policy” will be implemented.
b. An umbrella structure of the concerned business councils will be developed and expanded by improving the manpower, structure, and scope of regulatory bodies related to health.
c. The necessary structure will be developed and expanded by integrating the Umbrella Act to make the health sciences institutions more organized.
d. For the purpose of achieving a definite objective, clear criteria and procedures will be formulated to cooperate and partner with the private, community and non-governmental health organizations.
e. Medical good governance will be maintained by including government, private, community and co-operative sectors, and health care costs will be fixed and regulated.
f. In order to make the province and local level responsible, proper management of waste and pharmaceutical waste generated from hospitals and other health institutions and laboratories will be regulated as well as continued monitoring.
Strategy number 7. To regulate and manage the production, import, storage, distribution, and use of new technological health products as well as pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals.
Courses of Actions:
a. In view of the medicines provided by the Government of Nepal for free, the country will be gradually made self-reliant in the production of medicines.
b. Effective management of the production, storage, and distribution of pharmaceutical and technological health materials will be made by emphasizing the commercial cultivation of medicinal herbs and the development and promotion of the pharmaceutical industry.
c. Regulatory bodies will be developed and expanded to make effective the implementation of generic prescriptions, price, and quality of medicines, minimization of antibiotic resistance, control of antibiotic abuse and drug research.
Strategy number 8. To adopt integrated measures including community health system for the prevention and prevention of disease control and public health disaster management preparedness and prevention.
Courses of Actions:
a. Programs will be implemented by developing a nationally integrated body for the study, investigation, surveillance, prevention, control, prevention, elimination and regulation of transmitted and non-communicable diseases.
b. Long-term strategies will be formulated and implemented through multi-regional coordination to effectively prevent the prevention, control, and treatment of non-communicable and chronic diseases.
c. On the basis of population-based research on the weight and distribution of hereditary diseases, including sickle cell anemia and Plexumia, prevention and treatment programs will be formulated and implemented.
d. Access to mental health services will be expanded at all levels. Health services related to eye, nose, ear, neck, and mouth will be developed and expanded at the federal, state and local levels respectively.
e. A mechanism will be formulated and implemented for the immediate addressing of disasters and epidemics at the union, state and local levels, integrated development of ambulance services, mobilization of trained doctors and health workers.
Strategy number 9. Increasing the use of statistics in the approval, evaluation, review, policy-making, and decision making processes by making health information systems more systematic, integrated and technology-friendly, addressing the demands of all levels of health information.
Courses of Actions:
a. Health data management will be made quality and technology-friendly, and the use of statistics will be promoted in policy-making and decision-making processes at all levels, including study, research, survey, projection, analysis.
b. At the health institution level, data management will be made technology-friendly and electronic reporting will be made from the health institution and gradually the electronic health records will be extended to all health institutions.
c. Arrangements will be made for the development and transmission of information updating systems at all times in line with the national core network as per the requirement of health data produced at the local level.
d. On the basis of national needs and priorities, the results of the study, research, survey, and survey will be used for policy formulation and scheduling.
Strategy number 10. To improve the working area of Nepal Health Research Council from time to time and develop it at the state level.
Courses of Actions:
a. In order to formulate a health policy and plan based on the facts, the structure of the Nepal Health Research Council will be expanded to the state level, in collaboration with the university and the academic sector.
Strategy number 11. Arrangements will be made to minimize the risks to public health through the immigration process.
Courses of Actions:
a. While developing the Immigration Health Management Information System, policy and institutional arrangements will be made for easy access to and access to health checks and health services before and after the departure of the immigrant, at the destination and after arrival.
Strategy number 12. Effective implementation of coordination and partnership of multilateral nutrition plan.
Courses of Actions:
a. In accordance with the multi-sectoral nutrition plan (Second), nutritional related schemes formed at the state and local level will be strengthened with a nutrition improvement plan, Arrangement will be made for nutritionally targeted and nutritionally sensitive programs from all levels of health institutions.
b. In order to reduce malnutrition, healthy habits will be promoted by increasing access to and consumption of quality and healthy foods.
Strategy number 13. Include health in all policies through multi-sectoral coordination.
Courses of Actions:
a. A health concept will be effectively implemented by addressing public health problems, strengthening multi-regional coordination on drinking water, environmental cleanliness, air and sound pollution, food security, education, roads, and implementing the concept of “health in all policies” and coordinating with concerned stakeholders.
b. The mixing and use of tobacco, alcohol, chemicals, pesticides and inorganic products that adversely affect health will be controlled and regulated. Production, transmission, and transmission of health-related messages and content will be made scientific, systematic and effective in order to discourage and control the factual and misleading messages and advertisements that promote processed and prepared foods that harm public health.
c. The construction of a bicycle lane, a home-care shop, a public park, an exercise hall, a yoga center, and a gym center to promote a healthy environment and an active lifestyle, informing all citizens to use healthy food in line with the concept of healthy kitchens to make “my health, my responsibility” effective. Coordination with the concerned will be provided for the establishment.
d. Prior to the approval of the designated industries, businesses and projects, standards and mechanisms will be arranged at the union, state and local levels for the evaluation of public health impact, in view of occupational health and safety.
Expected achievements after the completion of the 15th periodic plan:
a. The average life expectancy of Nepali people with a healthy, strong and active life will be 72 years.
b. The maternal mortality ratio per 99 live births where infant mortality per thousand live births will fall to 14 and child mortality below the age of five will fall to 24.
c. The percentage of underweight children under the age of five will fall from 27 to 15 percent and the condition of dwarfs will fall from 36 to 20 percent.
d. Citizens will receive basic health care free of charge.
e. Health insurance will increase to 60 percent of the population, personal spending on health care decreases by 40 percent, government investment in health increases by 8 percent and households with health institutions access within a 30-minute distance will incline to 80 percent.
f. According to the protocol, 81 percent of pregnant women will undergo health center visits at least four occasions, 79 percent of children will be born in the presence of skilled health workers and 95 percent of children will receive a full vaccine.
g. Malaria, black fever, and Filaria/ Filarial Elephantiasis (हात्तीपाइले रोग) will be cured.